The American Philosophical Practitioners Association,
or APPA, is a non-profit educational corporation dedicated
to furthering philosophical practice. Philosophical practice
is defined by the APPA as a set of philosophically-based
activities that include personal action, individual counseling,
group facilitation, organizational consulting and educational
programing. The intent of these activities is to benefit
the public. The activities are non-medical, non-iatrogenic
and not allied intrinsically with psychiatry or psychology.
The foci of these activities are educational, axiological
and noetic. The APPA aims to further philosophical practice
in America by educating the public, disseminating literature,
cultivating client bases, providing referrals, initiating
or approving courses and programs, conducting seminars
and workshops, organizing or participating in conferences,
inviting distinguished practitioners from abroad, certifying
practitioners where advisable or necessary, recommending
appointees to Boards of Examiners to certify applicants
for State certification or licensing where applicable,
providing liaison with American and foreign national organizations
in both private and public sectors, and engaging in educational
and other activities compatible with the advancement of
Article II. Board of Directors, Officers and Executive
1. The APPA will have a Board
of Directors, consisting of not less than five persons
and not more than eleven persons. The founding number
is five. The Board of Directors will conduct its affairs,
including the appointment of additional Directors, in
accordance with the APPA's articles of incorporation.
Directors will serve terms of three years. Further terms
of service will be determined by the Board of Directors
in accordance with the articles of incorporation and bylaws
of the Association. Any changes to this constitution must
be approved by a majority of the Board of Directors.
2. The Board of Directors will appoint the Officers of
the APPA. The APPA will have five officers: one President,
three Vice Presidents, and one Secretary-Treasurer. The
President will have general charge of the Association's
affairs, and may act with power on all matters not otherwise
specified in the articles of incorporation, this constitution
or subsequent legislation of the Association. The President
will normally preside at official meetings. The Vice Presidents
and the Secretary-Treasurer will be the President's advisors
and deputies, and may take charge of particular affairs
of the Association as delegated or approved by the President.
A Vice President will normally preside at official meetings
in the President's absence. The Secretary-Treasurer will
be in charge of Association data, will receive and disburse
Association funds as authorized by the President, and
will record and report financial transactions as required
by the APPA's articles of incorporation. The Officers
will be responsible for policies of the APPA, and will
report as required to the Board of Directors. Officers
will serve terms of three years. Further terms of service
will be determined by the Board of Directors in accordance
with the APPA's articles of incorporation and bylaws.
3. The Officers of the APPA will appoint the Executive
Committee. It will have no fewer than five members, who
will serve terms of three years. The Executive Committee
will be responsible for operations of the APPA, and will
report as required to the Officers.
Article III. National and International
1. Distinguished American
practitioners will be invited by the Board of Directors
to join the APPA's National Advisory Board. They will
be consulted, as need arises, on issues pertaining to
policies and operations of the APPA. The normal term of
service will be three years.
2. Distinguished foreign practitioners will be invited
by the Board of Directors to join the APPA's International
Advisory Board. They will be consulted, as need arises,
on issues pertaining to policies and operations of the
APPA. The normal term of service will be three years.
Article IV. Certified Membership
Membership in the APPA is not restricted by nationality,
age, sex, gender, race, ethnicity, political affiliation
or religious persuasion. Certified membership in the APPA
is normally restricted to persons who:
(1) hold an advanced degree in Philosophy (e.g. M.A.,
M.Phil., Ph.D., D.Phil.) from an accredited academic institution;
(2)(a) have documented experience as a philosophical practitioner,
which includes client counseling, group facilitation,
or organizational consulting; or
(2)(b) have satisfied APPA training requirements for counselors,
facilitators or consultants; and
(3) have attestable qualities of professionalism and reputability
conducive to the integrity of philosophical practice.
Exceptional applicants who
do not satisfy criterion #1, but who satisfy criteria
#2(a) or #2(b) and criterion #3, may be considered for
Article V. Affiliate Membership
Qualified, experienced and
reputable practitioners of counseling, facilitation or
consulting who are grounded in other vocations--e.g. legal,
pastoral, psychiatric, psychological, social, managerial--but
who explicitly or implicitly utilize philosophical elements
in their practices, or who seek professional cooperation
with philosophical practitioners, may apply for affiliate
membership in the APPA. While affiliate members may not
represent themselves as certified members of the APPA,
they may, upon fulfilling the criteria in Article II,
apply for certified membership. Affiliate members of the
APPA will be eligible to participate in special seminars,
educational programs and other events designed to enhance
the philosophicality of their practices. The Directors
may invite a representative Affiliate Member to serve
on the National or International Advisory Board.
Article VI. Adjunct Membership
Holders of an accredited M.A. or Ph.D. in Philosophy,
or the equivalent thereof (as determined by the APPA),
may apply for adjunct membership in the APPA. Adjunct
Members are eligible to register for and attend APPA educational
programs, in partial fulfillment of APPA certification
requirements. Adjunct Members who satisfy such requirements
may then apply to become Certified Members. Adjunct Members
who do not seek certification may retain Adjunct Membership.
The Directors may invite a representative Adjunct Member
to serve on the National or International Advisory Board.
Article VII. Auxiliary Membership
Any consenting adult who is a friend or supporter
of philosophical practice may apply for auxiliary membership
in the APPA. Auxiliary members need satisfy no professional
requirements. Auxiliary members will be eligible to attend
special events and other educational programs intended
for the general public. The Directors may invite a representative
Auxiliary Member to serve on the National or International
Article VIII. Organizational Membership
Organizations may become members of the APPA. Member
organizations will be offered annual general seminars,
conducted by certified members of the APPA. Member organizations
will also be eligible to register employees in special
seminars, educational programs and other events designed
to enhance individual, team and corporate ethos. The Directors
may invite a representative Organizational Member to serve
on the National or International Advisory Board.
Article IX. Advisory Membership
Invited members of the National or International
Advisory Boards are advisory members of the Association.
They may also apply to become Certified, Affiliate, Adjunct
or Auxiliary Members, but are under no obligation to do
Article X. Honorary Membership
Individuals or organizations may become honorary
members of the APPA. Honorary memberships are distinctions
conferred by the Directors of the APPA.
Article XI. Responsibility, Liability
Under no circumstances will Directors, Officers,
members of the Executive Committee, and members of the
National or International Advisory Boards bear any responsibility
for any actions of any members--whether advisory, certified,
affiliate, adjunct, auxiliary or honorary members--of
the APPA. Under no circumstances will Directors, Officers,
members of the Executive Committee, and members of the
National or International Advisory Boards be construed
to make any representations about the actual practice
of any philosophical practitioners. Directors, Officers,
members of the Executive Committee, and members of the
National or International Advisory Boards have no personal
liability for the activities of the APPA or any philosophical
practitioners, or anyone making any claim about philosophical
practice, and are indemnified against all actions that
may be taken against the Directors, Officers, members
of the Executive Committee, and members of the National
or International Advisory Boards, or in which they are
Article XII. Code of Professional
The Directors, in consultation with the Advisory
Boards, will approve and maintain a Code of Professional
Ethical Practice suitable for philosophical practitioners
in America, by which all practicing APPA members will
abide. Failure by a member to abide by the APPA Code may
result in disciplinary action by the Executive Committee,
which may include suspension or expulsion from the APPA.
The current Code is defined in and appended to the bylaws
of this constitution.
Article XIII. Conduct of Business
1. The APPA will seek non-profit corporate status.
2. Its legal address will be:
50 Glenwood Avenue
Jersey City, NJ 07306
3. Its operational address will be:
The City College of New York
137th Street at Convent Avenue
New York, NY 10031
4. A quorum of the Board of Directors, including the President,
will meet at least once annually.
5. There will be an annual general meeting of the Association,
which all Directors, Officers, members of the Executive
Committee, members of the National and International Advisory
Boards, Certified Members, Affiliate Members, Adjunct
Members, Auxiliary Members and Organizational Members
will be invited to attend.
6. The APPA will conduct its business according to the
articles of incorporation and bylaws of the Association,
where said articles are mute, according to the provisions
of this Constitution and future amendments thereof.
Article XIV. Operating Procedures
1. Directors Dues
Directors are exempt from dues, unless they additionally
become members in a dues-paying category, in which case
they will pay the corresponding membership dues.
2. Certified Membership Dues and Certificates
Certified membership dues of $90 annually are payable
each March. Prospective members may apply at any time.
Certified members' dues are pro-rated for the initial
year. Certified or prospective certified members experiencing
financial hardship may apply to the Executive Committee
for a reduction of dues. Certified members will receive
certificates of certified membership bearing the seal
of the APPA, and membership cards.
3. Affiliate Membership Dues and Certificates
Affiliate membership dues of $72 annually are payable
each March, and are pro-rated for the initial year. Affiliate
members will receive certificates of affiliate membership
bearing the seal of the APPA, and membership cards.
4. Adjunct Membership Dues
Adjunct membership dues of $54 annually are payable each
March, and are pro-rated for the first year. Adjunct members
will receive membership cards.
5. Auxiliary Membership Dues
Auxiliary membership dues of $36 annually are payable
each March, and are pro-rated for the first year. Auxiliary
members will receive membership cards.
6. Organizational Membership Dues and Certificates
Organizational membership dues range from $1,494 annually,
and are scaled according to the number of employees attending
annual general seminars and/or special seminars, workshops
or educational APPA events. Organizational members will
receive certificates of organizational membership bearing
the seal of the APPA. Employees attending general seminars
and/or completing special seminars, workshops or other
educational APPA events will receive personalized certificates
bearing the seal of the APPA.
7. Advisory Membership Certificates
Advisory members pay no dues. They will receive certificates
of membership bearing the seal of the APPA. Advisory members
who additionally become members in a dues-paying category
will pay the corresponding membership dues.
8. Honorary Membership Certificates
Honorary members pay no dues. They will receive certificates
of honorary membership bearing the seal of the APPA.
9. Succession of Directors
Founding Directors of the APPA will serve initial three-year
terms, following which the Board of Directors will be
self-perpetuating. Expansions or contractions of, as well
as additions to or removals from the Board, will be decided
by a majority vote of the Board of Directors.
10. Presidential Veto
The President will have the power to veto in principle
any decision made by a majority of Directors but opposed
by the President. A Presidential veto in principle must
be exercised in writing, by the President, to all Directors.
Upon receipt of a written Presidential veto in principle,
the Directors will, after due deliberation, either rescind
or uphold the vetoed decision. If the decision is upheld,
the President will either rescind or uphold the veto in
principle. If the veto in principle is upheld, the President
will then seek veto in practice. Veto in principle becomes
veto in practice only if ratified via a plebiscite among
all dues-paying APPA members. For ratification, the plebiscite
must reflect a majority vote supporting the veto in a
majority of membership categories (i.e. a majority of
majorities among Certified, Affiliate, Adjunct, Auxiliary
and Organizational Members). The results of such a plebiscite
will be binding on the Directors and the President, and
will serve either to quash or to uphold the decision in
11. Directorate Veto
The Directors will have the power to veto in principle
any decision made by the President but opposed by a majority
of the Directors. A Directorate veto in principle must
be exercised in writing, by a majority of Directors, to
all Directors and to the President. Upon receipt of a
written Directorate veto in principle, the President will,
after due deliberation, either rescind or uphold the vetoed
decision. If the decision is upheld, the Directors will
either rescind or uphold the veto in principle. If the
veto in principle is upheld, the Directors will then seek
veto in practice. Veto in principle becomes veto in practice
only if ratified via a plebiscite among all dues-paying
APPA members. For ratification, the plebiscite must reflect
a majority vote supporting the veto in a majority of membership
categories (i.e. a majority of majorities among Certified,
Affiliate, Adjunct, Auxiliary and Organizational Members).
The results of such a plebiscite will be binding on the
President and the Directors, and will serve either to
quash or to uphold the decision in question.
12. Code of Ethical Professional Practice
The Code will be composed of two parts: fundamental canons
(i.e. overarching principles), and standards of ethical
practice (i.e. specific principles). The APPA adapts the
Standards of Ethical Practice of the American Society
for Philosophy, Counseling and Psychotherapy (ASPCP) to
serve as Part II of its Code of Ethical Professional Practice.
The Directors reserve the right to amend or modify the
Code of Ethical Professional Practice as circumstances
13. Certification and Education
(1) The Directors will adopt appropriate Certification
Standards, and will offer educational programs to qualify
Adjunct Members for certification. Suitable educational
programs (not leading to certification) will also be offered
to other categories of members. The Directors will appoint
a Chair of a Board of Professional Examiners in each area
of certified practice, who will recommend candidates for
certification to the Directors. To become certified, a
recommended candidate must be approved by a majority of
Directors. Chairs of the Boards of Professional Examiners
normally serve three-year renewable terms, but at all
events serve at the pleasure of the Directors.
(2) Primary certificates will normally be valid for a
period of up to two years, during which the holder may
renew the primary certificate by renewing annual certified
membership. However, an implied condition of primary certification
is that the holder seek full certification, which is attained
by advanced education and training programs. Primary certificates
held by persons who do not subsequently qualify or seek
to qualify for full certification will normally expire
after two years, and said holders will not be eligible
to renew their certified memberships until such time as
they qualify for full certification. Extensions are possible
on medical or compassionate grounds.
(3) Fully certified practitioners are expected to maintain
awareness of (if not contribute to) salient developments
in the field, and as such are expected to participate
in regular educational and professional development. Such
opportunities will be fostered by the Association.
(4) In keeping with its educational mission, the Association
will offer suitable educational programs to all its non-certified
members, and will further disseminate educational and
informational material to the entire membership through
newsletters, electronic publications, and other media.
(5) Non-certified members (i.e. Advisory, Affiliate, Adjunct,
Auxiliary and Organizational Members) may neither explicitly
nor implicitly misrepresent themselves as APPA-certified
philosophical practitioners. Non-certified members who
misrepresent themselves as APPA-certified practitioners
will be suspended or expelled from the Association, and
may suffer further legal repercussions.
14. Remuneration of Services and Expenses
A Director or Member may be remunerated for services rendered
to the Association, and for expenses directly incurred
in the rendering of said services. Remuneration will be
approved by the Executive Committee.
15. Conflict of Interest
Notwithstanding aforementioned remuneration, the Board
of Directors will not place itself in conflict of interest,
either individually or collectively, with respect to private
inurements deriving from services rendered to the Association.
If the Board contracts a fellow Director or Member to
render any such service, the maximum private inurement
will be calculated as the fair market value of said service,
minus ten percent. Other expenses (e.g. the approved purchase
of goods or services by a Director or Member on behalf
of the Association) will be fully reimbursed, upon submission
of original receipts.
16. Historical Matter
The founding Board of Directors, Officers and Executive
Committee consist of: Keith Burkum (Secretary-Treasurer);
Vaughana Feary (Vice President); Thomas Magnell (Vice
President); Lou Marinoff (President); Paul Sharkey (Vice
The founding National Advisory Board consists of: Harriet
Chamberlain, Pierre Grimes, Kenneth Kipnis, Jean Mechanic,
Wayne Shelton, James Tuedio.
The founding International Advisory Board consists of:
Gerd Achenbach (Germany), Dries Boele (Netherlands), Stanley
Chan (Canada), Jess Fleming (Taiwan), Ora Gruengard (Israel),
Ida Jongsma (Netherlands), David Jopling (Canada), Anders
Lindseth (Norway), Ernesto Spinelli (U.K.).
The APPA's founding General Counsel is Ronald Goldfarb,
The APPA's founding Special Counsel is Jennifer Hauge,
The original constitution was developed by the acting
Directors at meetings in New Jersey, New York and Pennsylvania,
during 1997-1998. The APPA was originally incorporated
in Washington, D.C., in March 1998, and was reincorporated
in Trenton, New Jersey, in April 1999.
The constitution was amended during
1998-1999, by the Board of Directors at meetings in
New York, New Jersey, Washington D.C. and California.
This version was ratified by a majority of Directors
in March, 1999.